© Mario Izquierdo

 Resumen de noticias: New Scientist (La Tierra)

New Scientist - Earth

· Young female monkeys use deer as?outlet for sexual frustration?. Adolescent female Japanese macaques mount deer and rub on their backs, perhaps as a way to practise sexual behaviour before they are old enough to mate

· Venice may be almost 200 years older than anyone thought. Two peach stones found in sediment beneath Saint Mark’s Basilica could extend the history of Venice by 180 years

· Why 2018 is gearing up to be a tipping point for climate action. What will next year hold for global temperatures, carbon dioxide levels, the electric car revolution and Trump's coal dream, wonders Owen Gaffney

· California?s wildfires are driven by climate and human error. Six separate wildfires are raging in California. They are driven both by hotter, drier climate and by human activities such as planting“alien” trees

· ?Scary? spider photos on Facebook are revealing new species. When people see a big spider they often post a photo on Facebook– and those images have now revealed up to 30 new species

· Ancient microbes caused Earth?s first ever global warming. Over 3 billion years ago, the sun was faint so our planet should have been a snowball. But it wasn’t – and microorganisms may have been what kept it warm

· Waterworlds: How should we protect our most precious resource?. As new politics of protecting natural resources emerges, what does that mean for water? And who writes the rules? Three new books explore

· Faltering carbon capture needs more investment not doubt. The world's first full-scale power plant carbon capture project has stumbled, but we can't let that risk the future of a technology we need, says Olive Heffernan

· Will wildfires finally change Rupert Murdoch?s climate stance?. The media-mogul's Santa Monica vineyard was saved from wildfire destruction, but the world may yet burn thanks to his climate views, says Richard Schiffman

· Africa?s giraffes are being slaughtered by Joseph Kony?s army. Elephants, giraffes, giant elands and chimpanzees are being decimated by poachers linked to violent militias in a lawless region of central Africa

· Earth?s climate will warm 15 per cent more than we thought. Climate models have always offered a range of possible temperature rises, but it turns out the ones that best fit what’s happened so far all predict even greater warming

· Japan?s refusal to stop ivory trade undermines bans elsewhere. Even though other countries are clamping down on illegal ivory, the unconstrained trade in Japan may offer loopholes for criminals to keep selling ivory– fuelling elephant poaching

· Sumatran tigers fall 17 per cent and have just two strongholds. There are now only two viable populations of Sumatran tigers left in the wild, so if the cats are to be saved those areas have to be protected

· Scorching hot springs house extreme life and a future ocean. Three tectonic plates are gradually pulling apart at the Danakil depression in Ethiopia, creating a hot, acid environment that could provide clues to life on Mars

· Tasty tomatoes could be sacrificed in drive to cut food waste. People are up in arms over new UK food labelling guidelines that advise storing tomatoes in the fridge. Does flavour have to lose out to reduce spoilage?

· The fashion industry can only go green by becoming unfashionable. Fashion is facing up to how wasteful it is, but its impact on the environment goes far beyond fast fashion and ever-changing trends

· ?Super-spreader? coral could restore trashed Great Barrier Reef. Most of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef may well be destroyed in the next few decades, but hubs of resilient coral could make larvae to restore it all

· Hey, Flat Earther, no need to launch a rocket to test your ideas. Memo to Mike Hughes - there are plenty of ways to check if Earth is flat or not without building your own rocket, says Ian Whittaker

· Madagascar?s lemurs close to extinction after population crash. Ring-tailed lemurs have experienced a precipitous decline over the last two decades and are now one of the 25 most endangered primates in the world

· What to expect if Indonesia?s volcano erupts in a big way. Mount Agung's last big eruption was in 1963, and a major blast could create an ash cloud that disrupts air travel for weeks, and temporarily cool the global climate as well

· Dan McKenzie: The man who made Earth move. 50 years ago, the theory of plate tectonics was radical counterculture– until some chance happenings in the Summer of Love sent it mainstream

· Russia confirms?extremely high? radiation levels in toxic cloud. Earlier this month, France's nuclear safety agency said it had recorded radioactivity in the area near the Ural Mountains - and Russia has now verified the readings

· Light pollution is set to double between now and 2050. The first global“light census” shows that the area affected by artificial lighting is growing by 2.2 per cent every year, posing risks to wildlife and human health

· Keystone XL oil pipeline will go ahead despite last week?s spill. Last week the Keystone pipeline spilled 5,000 barrels of oil. This week Nebraska decided to allow the Keystone XL extension to be built right through the state

· Latest climate talks actually made progress despite US obstinacy. While the US tried to promote“clean coal” at the COP23 Bonn climate meeting, other countries called for the dirty fossil fuel to be rapidly phased out

· The exquisite marble that sculptor Michelangelo couldn?t use. Workers at the Cervaiole quarry have supplied marble to Auguste Rodin and Henry Moore. But the beautiful rock was discovered 500 years ago by Michelangelo

· How a tiny fly can?scuba dive? in a salty and toxic lake. Alkali flies plunge into the salty and alkaline Mono Lake, to feed and lay their eggs, but until now it has been unclear how they manage to survive

· Spongy clay might create huge water deposits deep inside Earth. We might finally know how ocean-sized deposits of water hundreds of kilometres below Earth's surface are getting there: a spongy sort of clay that is bringing it underground

· Why setting?safe? limits for environmental damage won?t work. The boundaries set for human impacts on the planet are deeply flawed and only encourage us to keep pushing towards them, warns Stuart Pimm

· Weak links in US power grid vulnerable in event of catastrophe. Largest study of 'cascading failures' finds that only a small subset of North America's power grid is at risk from domino-like electrical failure

· Trump to let Americans import ivory and hunting trophies again. Donald Trump's administration is reversing a ban on the imports of elephant trophies—including ivory—from Zimbabwe and Zambia

· If we only ate organic it would be an environmental disaster. Organic food production requires more land, but a study claims cutting meat eating and food waste will solve this problem. It won’t

· Camera spots hidden oil spills and may find missing planes. For the first time, a polarising infrared camera– never before used on Earth – has been made small and light enough to detect concealed oil spills

· Big aftershocks could well hit Iran and Iraq in next 48 hours. The magnitude 7.3 quake that struck Iran and Iraq on Monday has already killed 400 and injured thousands, and more tremors could be on the way

· Climate change blamed for Arabian Sea?s unexpected hurricanes. A flurry of hurricane-strength storms struck the Arabian Sea in 2014 and 2015, and climate change seems to have played a role

· Bad news: Carbon emissions have suddenly started rising again. Emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel are on the rise again. We desperately need more action to stop climate change, and that means putting a price on carbon

· Human arrivals wiped out the Caribbean?s giant ground sloths. Many giant mammals in the Americas have died out but it has been hard to say whether humans or natural events were responsible. Now, in the Caribbean at least, we know

· The unseen puppet masters that control life in the oceans. Trace elements have the power to give life and snuff it out. For the first time, we are getting to grips with where they come from and how they act

· When it comes to climate, Donald Trump is in a club by himself. With pariah state Syria now backing the UN pact to curb global warming, the US stands against the other 195 nations of the world. What a disgrace, says Owen Gaffney

· What we?re doing now will make the ocean completely unliveable. Climate change could reduce oxygen levels in the oceans by 40 per cent over the next 8000 years, leading to dramatic changes in marine life

· Planting trees could mop up ten years? worth of greenhouse gases. The planet is still warming inexorably, with 2017 set to be one of the three hottest years on record, but a major programme of tree-planting could help cool the world

· China?s dreadful air pollution seems to have got a bit better. While China’s capital Beijing is once again suffering a severe smog, a new study suggests that nationally pollution has fallen 21 per cent over two years

· Old Scientist: Why aren?t there more British Nobels?. Why did a maverick British astronomer never get the gong? New Scientists of Novembers past reveal it’s a perennial worry

· Europe and the US were most responsible for deadly heatwave. A lethal heatwave that struck Argentina in 2013 was made more likely by climate change– and greenhouse gases from Europe and the US played the biggest role

· The latest science reads remind us why we really do need experts. Mary Halton reflects on how books on forecasting, rock-reading and the grisly world of Victorian medicine highlight how we have always relied on those in the know

· A third of animals are vanishing as roads spread through forests. The world’s forests are being criss-crossed by roads and clearings, and as a result many backboned animals are becoming less abundant

· Rivers and forests need the same legal rights we grant to people. Environmental campaigners want the Colorado river to get the right to sue in US courts. It's not as crazy as it sounds, says Richard Schiffman

· Freeloading mites are squatting on spider webs and stealing food. A newly-discovered species of mite sets up home on a spider’s web and nibbles away at any insects the spider catches – and the spider doesn’t seem to mind

· Climate change will kill millions but you knew that already. It’s no surprise, but an analysis has predicted deadly heatwaves, more deaths from starvation, and a boom in mosquito-borne diseases thanks to climate change

· We have four years fewer to slash carbon emissions than thought. Soils in cold regions may release far more carbon than expected as world warms, and that means our carbon budget is smaller than we thought it is

· Ban on weedkiller glyphosate won?t save anyone from cancer. Unfounded health fears mean Europe is on the brink of banning the herbicide, risking greater soil damage and higher carbon emissions

· Cataclysms: A life spent chasing planetary catastrophe. Evidence of asteroid impacts and other extreme events on Earth can prove elusive. Michael Rampino reveals what he's found in his latest book

· We all get poorer every time a climate disaster strikes. Long-term economic effects of global warming could be far greater than thought, making many countries poorer and hurting even those of us spared direct impacts

· La Nia forecast may mean even worse Atlantic hurricanes in 2018. The Pacific Ocean is likely to enter a La Niña state in the next few months, which could mean a more active Atlantic hurricane season next year

· UN climate events are a wasted opportunity for public engagement. Even in green Germany, the UN Paris climate conference failed to catalyse greater concern among citizens. Smarter strategies are required, says Adam Corner

· New York should prepare for 15-metre storm surges by 2300. Due to rapidly rising seas, floods that once struck New York City every 500 years will soon hit every five years

· Dimming the sun could save corals from bleaching and hurricanes. Climate change will harm corals by overheating them and unleashing more violent hurricanes, but cooling the planet by geoengineering could reverse those effects

· Steep decline of wasps and other flying nasties is a bad sign. Aphids, midges and wasps are being added to the list of rapidly vanishing insects. It’s another alarming sign of a sixth mass extinction, says Olive Heffernan

· The mass extinction that might never have happened. An ecological catastrophe 201 million years ago supposedly paved the way for the rise of giant dinosaurs, but it may not have happened that way after all

· A tech-destroying solar flare could hit Earth within 100 years. If the sun spews“superflares” as often as other stars, one could take down power systems, damage the ozone layer and destroy satellites in the next century

· How to clean up the dirty water Puerto Ricans are drinking. Nearly a month after Hurricane Maria, many people on Puerto Rico are still without clean drinking water and have resorted to wells on a contaminated site

· Ophelia shows many hurricanes could reach Europe in the future. Tropical cyclones often get to Europe but normally they have weakened by the time they get there. Not any more, thanks to climate change

· The next supercontinent: Four ways Earth could reshape itself. Plate tectonics is a slow-grind drama with some dramatic plot twists– these scenarios show how Earth might look in 250 million AD

· It looks like an oxymoron, but Earth optimism is worth a try. Decades of environmental doom-mongering have fallen on deaf ears. Maybe a new environmental campaign with a message of hope is just what we need

· It?s time artists woke up to the power at their fingertips. The recent Lofoten Islands biennale and The New We, a group show now on in Norway, both get artists to engage with nature– but they don't seem keen to commit

· Is positive thinking the way to save the planet?. Move over doom and gloom, there is a new environmental movement in town. Earth optimists say focusing on small successes is the way forward

· Air pollution blamed for 500,000 early deaths in Europe in 2014. The biggest source of harm was particulate matter from domestic stoves, but nitrogen dioxide from cars is also linked to many premature deaths

· California?s wildfires powered by perfect storm of fire hazards. Low humidity, parched vegetation and warm winds have led to fires that have killed at least 17, left over 150 people missing and destroyed over 2000 homes

· I want to show the courts who?s to blame for climate change. Climate modelling allows us to link extreme weather, climate change and emissions so we can use the law to hit big oil where it hurts, says Myles Allen

· Cold climate may have driven ancient humans? move out of Africa. East Africa became colder and drier around 75,000 years ago, just when modern humans were apparently migrating out of Africa

· We just found nineteen new species of gecko in one tiny area. The discovery of so many closely-related vertebrate species within such a small area is unprecedented

· Grass-fed beef is bad for the planet and causes climate change. Supporters like Prince Charles say raising cattle on pastures can be good for the environment, but the sums have been done and their claims don’t add up

· Early farmers may have polluted the sea 4000 years ago. Heavy metals including cadmium and lead are unusually common in sediments from the South China Sea, hinting that run-off from farms was spilling into the ocean 4000 years ago

· Kids suing nations over climate change wildfire links are right. A group of children is aiming to take 47 nations to court over links between climate change and forest fires. Science is on their side, says Richard Schiffman

· Why Puerto Rico still has no electrical power and how to fix it. Hurricane Maria is long gone but almost all of Puerto Rico has been left without a power supply, and restarting the national grid from scratch will be very difficult

· Energy from evaporating water could rival wind and solar. Water evaporating from lakes and reservoirs could provide a huge amount of electricity, but scaling up the technology will be tricky

· A few cold drops falling through a cloud could create a downpour. One raindrop that is less than 4°C cooler than the surrounding cloud can trigger a rapid burst of microdroplets, which can spawn a sudden rainstorm

· Mexico City quake: A few seconds? warning can still save lives. The recent earthquake in Mexico City shows even the best tremor alarms sometimes only go off seconds before– but clever planning can mean those few seconds save many people

· Super-Earths draw asteroids to other worlds, which may seed life. Asteroid collisions can be destructive– just ask the dinosaurs – but they also bring key ingredients for life. Super-Earths can draw them to nearby worlds

· What a surprise? the end of the world has been delayed, again. The planet Nibiru was meant to wipe us out on Saturday. Undeterred by a no-show, doomsday theorists are already peddling more nonsense, warns Geraint Lewis

· Huge space rocks could have helped start Earth?s plate tectonics. Nobody knows how or why plate tectonics got started on Earth. But new evidence suggest collisions with space rocks millions of years ago may have something to do with it

· The hurricane hunter who got up close and personal with Irma. While most people flee the world’s mightiest storms, meteorologist Jason Dunion buckles up and flies straight into them

· The nuclear stalemate is crumbling? what are our options?. The two-party game theory of the cold war doesn't work any more– time for a new approach

· Our terrifying energy future leaves us with uncertainties. We could outrun environmental disaster by ditching fossil fuels for safer options, but will we? Three new books paint a scary picture by refusing to commit

· There is no way to spot big earthquakes ahead of time. Large earthquakes look just like small ones when they start out, so early warning systems have no clues to help figure out if a quake is going to be huge

· Lightning storms triggered by exhaust from cargo ships. The world's busiest shipping lanes have twice as many bolts of lightning as nearby areas, and ships pumping soot into the air seem to be responsible

· Another lost tribe feared massacred? how can we save the rest?. Should we leave uncontacted tribes alone or try to usher them into the modern world to protect them from violence and disease, wonders Curtis Abraham

· Hurricane Maria confirms dire warnings for 2017 hurricane season. As Hurricane Maria continues to cause destruction, predictions that 2017 could be the worst hurricane season since 2010 are being borne out

· Handheld scanner divines how nutritious your food really is. Climate change and soil degradation are depleting the nutrients in crops, but now a scanner can analyse grain to help farmers mitigate problems as it grows

· Mexico hit by second huge quake caused by same tectonic strain. The country has been struck by its second big earthquake in less than two weeks, causing dozens of buildings to collapse

· Stunning shots capture how we interact with our natural world. These evocative pictures by photographer Lucas Foglia catalogue his quest to capture our turbulent relationship with nature

· Secrets of butterfly wing patterns revealed by gene hacking. Butterflies' wings have extraordinary patterns and colours, and it turns out they are controlled by a single "master gene" that performs many roles

· Thousands likely to be killed by Hurricane Irma?s deadly legacy. Toxic chemicals released by floodwaters, stress, infection and dangerous working conditions will all contribute to hurricane death toll years after winds die

· Could we store carbon dioxide as liquid lakes under the sea?. We need to get carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere to slow down climate change, and perhaps deep-sea trenches would be a good place to put it

· No, climate science isn?t wrong, and yes, global warming is real. A study suggests we can emit three times more carbon than we thought and still avoid 1.5°C of global warming - but the results are not as straightforward as they seem

· Fear and trembling, from The Great Quake to Quakeland. Detail or range? Two new books offer very different approaches to the fascinating and violent world of earthquake science

· A rushed response to Hurricane Irma could cause bigger disasters. We must prepare for the bigger storms to come, but if planners get it wrong, their efforts to protect people could make future mega-disasters even worse

· Christmas Island?s only echolocating bat has gone extinct. The Christmas Island pipistrelle is no more, and the world's largest antelope is at risk, according to the latest update to the Red List of Threatened Species

· Mysterious lights in the sky seen after Mexico?s huge earthquake. Magnitude isn’t the only demonstration of an earthquake’s power. For centuries, mysterious lights have popped up in the wake of strong quakes

· The hottest place ever recorded on Earth?s surface was 2370C. When a rock from space crashed to ground 38 million years ago, it briefly heated the impact zone to 2370°C, the hottest temperature ever recorded on Earth’s crust

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